Stimulants - Martin Debraine



What are stimulants?

Stimulants are a class of drugs that enhance brain activity. Stimulants( also called "uppers") are chemicals that stimulate the brain and the central nervous system by increasing the state of mental alertness, attention, and energy that is accompanied by elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate and respiration. Stimulants have the opposite effect of depressants, or "downers". They usually have side-effects and if you take them for an extended period of time, you may become dependent upon them.

Stimulants.jpg
Types of Stimulants
Organic
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline

Legal
  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Weight loss pills
  • Energy drinks
  • Prescription Amphetamines (Adderall, Desoxyn, Dexadrine)

Illegal
  • Methamphetamine
  • Crack
  • Cocaine
  • Ecstasy


Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
Adrenaline (Epinephrine) is a hormone released in times of stress that allows the body to respond to sudden demands imposed on the body; such as pain, shock, fear, and cold. Produced by the adrenal gland, it is transported through the bloodstream and effects the part of your nervous system that controls heart and breath rate, sweating, pupil dilation and the "fight or flight" syndrome. Adrenaline comes fromt he kidney while Noradrenaline is in the braine.
external image 023100SX.jpgimages_(1).jpg( that will cause your body to produce adrenaline)images_(2).jpg( this for some)


Amphetamines
AMPHETHAMINE.jpg
amphetamine

similar to Adrenaline in there structures, it mimic the effects of adrenaline but amphetamines are man made drugs.
medical uses are mild depressions, narcolepsy ( tendency to fall asleep) and asthma
Caffeine

CAFFEINE.jpg
CAFFEINE.jpg
images.jpg COFFEE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Caffeine content of different products
cup of ground coffee 80-120 mg
cup of instant coffee 65 mg
cup of tea 40 mg
can of cola 40 mg
bar (100g) of plain chocolate 80mg
most widelay used stimulants int he world.
more then 400 mg per day could cause dependence and physical side effect.
Nicotine
NICOTINE.jpg
NICOTINE.jpg
2010-11-29-13-47-34-2-alcohol-tobacco-drugs-and-stimulants-can-weaken.jpeg
nicotine is found in tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke is a source of nicotine. short lived effect as a stimulants. initial uses is followed by depression witch encourages frequent use.
Methamphetamine
Cupric-Sulphate-Anhydrous.jpg
methamphetamine is commonly referred to as "crystal meth", "meth" .


short term effect of Stimulants
  • facilitate berating by causing relaxation of air passages
  • reduce appetite, used in treatment for obesity
  • Increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Stimulants can constrict the blood vessels in the body which leads to these potentially dangerous conditions.
  • Irregular breathing. After the initial “rush” from the stimulant, the individual may experience shortness of breath or uneven breathing patterns.
  • Hyperactivity. When an individual takes a stimulant, they may become restless and hyperactive as the active ingredients in the drug begin to increase the production of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.

long terms effect of Stimulants
  • emotional instability or depression
  • restlessness
  • sleeplessness
  • delusions and hallucinations


D.5.1 list the physiological effects of stimulants
  • increase in heart rate and blood pressure,constriction of arteries
  • relaxation of air passages therefore an increase breathing rate (treatment of respiratory infections such as bronchitis)
  • dilation of pupils
  • sweating
  • reduced appetite
  • Increase concentration, treatment for ADHD

D.5.2 Compare amphetamines and epinephrine ( adrenaline)
they have similar structrues and have the same effects.
  • Both have a benzene ring with a hydrocarbon chain containing an amine.
  • Primary amine in amphetamine and secondary amine in adrenaline.( the NH is conected to 2 Carbon in adrenaline but only connected to one Carbon in amphetamine.)
  • Epinephrine has three -OH groups while amphetamine has none


EPINEPHRINE.jpg
epinephrine
AMPHETHAMINE.jpg
amphetamine


  • Adrenaline comes from within the body, the kidney, while an amphetamine is a man-made drug.

SHort term effect of amphetamines
  • increase mental alertness
  • increase physical energy
Long term effect of amphetamines
  • tolerance
  • dependence
  • severe depression
  • reduced resistance to infection



D.5.3 disscus short- and long-term effect of nicotine consumption.

Short term effect of nicotine
  • constrict blood vessels
  • decrease in urine output
  • decrease in reflex time
  • increase of heart rate and blood pressure
  • irritation of airways
Long term effect of nicotine
  • increase risk of heart disease
  • physical and psychological dependence
  • risk of mouth, gum, lungs and throat cancer
  • develop tolerance



D.5.4 Describe the effect of caffeine and compare its structure with that of nicotine.

  • Reduction of fatigue
  • increase in mental alertness
  • increase concentration
  • helps the body to absorb analgesics
  • increase urine output
also
  • increase in stomach acid and can cause stomach iritation
  • may cause insomnia
  • change in physical coordination
  • dependence
  • withdrawl symptoms of headaches and nausea and sleep troubles




CAFFEINE.jpg
CAFFEINE.jpg
NICOTINE.jpg
NICOTINE.jpg
images_(3).jpg(nicotine and caffeine)
similarities
  • both contain a 6 side ring with N and C
  • contain a 5 side ring with N and C
  • both contain alkene group ( C double bonded to an other C )



difference
  • the rings are connected in caffeine but not in nicotine
  • caffeine has 1 alkene and nicotine has 2

http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=204
http://www.treatment4addiction.com/drugs/stimulants/#
http://www.michaelshouse.com/drug-addiction/effects-drug-addiction-stimulants/
http://veteranssuicides.weebly.com/2/post/2010/8/adrenaline-and-amphetamine-by.html
http://www.osc-ib.com/ib-revision-guides/pdf/Chem%20Opt%20D%20-%20sample%20pgs.pdf
http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=204
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methamphetamine