REVIEW for all material in topic d - Frances Canavan

Analgesics are pain-killers that relieve pain by interfering with pain receptors in the brain, and the brain's perception of pain.

Mild Analgesics
Strong Analagesics
used to treat small amounts of pain
used to treat serious pain
work by blocking the pain receptors in the brain
work by changing the brain's perception of pain
not addictive
highly addictive
Examples: aspirin, acetaminophen, ibprofen, codeine
Examples: morphine, heroine, methadone

Side effects of narcotics
Short term
Long term
change in appetite
impared coordination
risk of disease from shared needles
temporary impotence
reduced anxiety
death in the case of overdose

Antacids are basic substances used to neutralize excess stomach acid.
Antacids are often used with other chemicals in order to reduce heart burn, or prevent bloating and flatulence.
Aluminum, calcium, magnesium, and sodium based antacids all have varying side effects.

Antibacterials are antiseptics that treat bacterial infections by attacking only diseased cells.

Antivirals are drugs that are designed to treat viral infections.
Core of DNA/RNA, surrounded by the capsid
Cell structure
Can survive outside of host cells
Attatches to other microorganisms or objects

Depressants slow down the central nervous system.
Types of depressants are: Tranquilizers, Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Benzodiazepines
Ethanol (alcohol) and sleeping pils are common forms of depressants.
Too much of a depressant can slow down the nervous system to the point of a coma or even death.

Drugs can be classified according to their:
-Therapeutic Effect


Drugs can be classified according to their:

-Therapeutic Effect


The Beta-Lactam ring is important to Penicillin because it interferes with bacteria’s cell wall synthesis, which stops bacterial infections. It makes the cell hypotonic; the bacteria cell continues to swell with water until it eventually explodes.

Heroin is more non-polar than morphine, and therefore can more easily pass through blood and bran barriers that block polar molecules. This causes heroin to be more potent than morphine.


Rational Drug Design- Drugs are created to interact with specific molecules within the body.

Lead compounds- compounds that produce the most desirable pharmaceutical results.

Compound Libraries: stored details on combinations of the lead compound with various candidate molecules‍.

Types of Drug Design/Testing:
Combinatorial Synthesis
Parallel Synthesis
High-throughput screening (HTS)
Computer-Aided design (CAD)
Different Drug structures used to maximize absorption and distribution
Reaction of Carboxylic Acid to form ionic salt
Reaction of Amine to form ionic salt
Asymmetric Synthesis - Single Enantiomer

Hallucinogens- drugs that alter how one percieves things with the five senses.
Examples: LSD (from grain fungus ergot), Mescaline (from flowers of peyote cactus), Psilocybin (Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms)
Cannabis- commonly used drug, depressant and mild hallucinogen

Drugs- chemicals that affect how one’s body functions
Medicine- a substance that improves health, usually by assisting the body in its natural healing processes.
Drugs can be taken in various ways, such as through the mouth, inhalation, injection, etc.
There are different types of medicines; some affect metabolic processes, some target the brain/nervous system, and placebos, which aren’t considered to be drugs, since they work more psychologically.